Friday, March 13, 2020
The Consciousness Raising Model
The Consciousness Raising Model Abstract Consciousness raising model is a process of creating awareness in a new language, learning it and then using it in conversations. Generally, the first step in consciousness-raising model in relation to English language is creating awareness that the language exists, and then distinguishing it from other languages and lastly, using it to communicate. New language consciousness is important, as it helps in making communication easier.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on The Consciousness Raising Model specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even though people master their first language easily, it is also possible for them to master other languages, especially when the best strategies of consciousness-raising are adopted. In most cases, when learning strategies used match with the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and preferences, the learning process becomes easier. Nevertheless, consciousness-raising strategies in second lan guage learning are usually based on motivation of learners, aptitude test, learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive ability, and the styles used in learning. These strategies have been proved by personality and social psychologists to be among the factors that determine individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ cognitive abilities. Introduction Consciousness-raising model is used to promote and develop cognitive ability of a learner in acquisition of a second language. Second language acquisition is the process that allows learners to master a new language, which is usually different from their first language. Teachers play a big role in raising consciousness on new language by allowing them to recognize its form, meaning, and context, and then learning how to use it. For example, a learner may first learn phrasal verbs used in English and then try to distinguish them from other sounds in other languages before they can be able to communicate using the language. Generally, in raising consciousness about a new language , learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ differences cannot be ignored, hence the need for discussing second language acquisition in relation to the psychology of the learners. Therefore, this paper will discuss consciousness-raising model and strategies, as well as the styles that can be used in promoting second language learning, specifically the English language. It will also discuss the various individual differences that influence consciousness in second language acquisition, including personality traits and mood of the learners (Robinson, 2002).Advertising Looking for term paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Individual Differences and Consciousness Raising in Language Acquisition In order to come up with the best strategies for consciousness-raising process in second language acquisition, it is important to consider individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ differences and characteristics, mainly because they give the basis about their l anguage aptitude, learning styles, and motivation, which are very important contributors in the process of learning a second language (DÃ ¶rnyei, 2005). IndividualsÃ¢â¬â¢ differences and characteristics that have contributed largely towards raising consciousness in second language acquisition include personality, moods, and learning motivation strategies. Therefore, it is important to consider values, interests, learning coping styles and social identity and relationships of the learners (Johnson, 2004). In addition, their cognitive perceptions and psychological aspects of life including health and educational lifestyle should be given priority in the process of raising consciousness in second language acquisition. Besides, individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ characteristics such as attitudes, emotions, skills, socio-economic status, and gender should also be given enough emphasis in order to develop better strategies of learning a second language. Evidently, proper analysis of these qualities w ill give more genetic codes about an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive skills, interpersonal abilities, and emotional attachments, which are very important in acquisition of second language (Macaro, 2010) Individual moods and Consciousness Raising in Language Acquisition IndividualsÃ¢â¬â¢ moods and personality play an important role in the way individuals communicate, as well as in their self-esteem and beliefs. Therefore, a teacher should be sensitive to these moods and personality traits when raising consciousness about a second language in order to prevent instances of anxiety and fear in the learning process (DÃ ¶rnyei, 2005). Again, personality, temperament, and moods go hand in hand in the learning process, hence the need to consider them in the second language acquisition and learning process. Given that a learner is being introduced to new ideas and sounds, it is important to ensure that they are in the best mood to recognize and internalize what is being taught in order for the learning process to be effective.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on The Consciousness Raising Model specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Due to this important role that personality plays in the learning process, it is important to give it more emphasis in order to enhance effectiveness of second language acquisition and consciousness-raising process. One of the ways of studying personality involves the use of the big five model. This model involves controlling the use of common sense, hence determining an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional stability and consciousness, which lead to good results and good performance in the learning process (Saville-Troike, 2005). Personality and Consciousness Raising in Language Acquisition According to social and personality psychologists, an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality has great effect on the process of his or her linguistic ability and second language acquisition (Ellis, 2003) . Again, personality plays a significant role in speech acquisition, which makes it important for personality aspects and applied linguistics to be largely considered in the process of teaching oral language including speech. Indeed, research shows these two aspects have an important impact on the theoretical aspects and application in raising consciousness in second language study and learning. Besides, it is important to consider language aptitude of the learner, since it has great influence on the cognitive aspect of second language acquisition. It is also important if the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mental ability is considered in teaching some language styles and methodologies, since the reasoning and thinking skills should be well developed for consciousness-raising process to be effective. Nevertheless, psychologists believe that the process of acquiring new knowledge and processing information depends mostly on the mental abilities (Ellis, 2003). Motivation and Intelligence Developm ent According to research, it is clear that second language acquisition depends on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence quotient. Hence, it is important to improve the intelligence of learners in order to facilitate the acquisition of English as a second language (Ellis, 2003). Modern language aptitude test, which involves testing numbering, phonetic script, and spelling clues, is also very important in the process of learning English as a second language; hence, the test should be used as one of the strategies of raising consciousness in learning second language.Advertising Looking for term paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, factors such as role learning ability, grammatical sensitivity, and phonetic coding ability should be put into consideration in the process of learning English as a second language. For an individual to learn more effectively, it is usually important that auditory ability, verbal intelligence, and inductive language learning ability of the learner be improved to gain more knowledge about the rules governing the use of English language (Ellis, 2003). The use of good motivational strategies has been regarded as some of the means and ways of improving second language acquisition, since it increases learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ self-confidence, thereby giving them more courage to express themselves using the new language learnt. Motivation also gives learners, the courage to be involved in self-evaluation, hence leading to self-improvement towards learning of the second language (DÃ ¶rnyei, 2005). Styles Used in Raising Consciousness in Language Acquisition Theories such as task motiv ation theory can be used in order to improve awareness in English language acquisition. Parental influence, learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs, and giving feedback to learners can also be effective in motivating learners to become more aware about the use of the new language (Lamb Reinders, 2008). Various styles can be used in raising consciousness in language acquisition such as the use of reflective observation as well as the use of divergence and convergence, including both active and concrete styles of learning. These styles will enable individual learners to develop their own thinking abilities and generate concrete ideas. It is also important that learners be allowed to involve in try-outs, which involve guessing meaning of phrases, verbs and other stylistic linguistics used in English language, followed by continuous and consistent practice. Deductive and inductive styles of learning should also be applied in raising consciousness about a new language in order to enhance faster learni ng of the second language (Robinson, and Ellis, 2008). Conclusion From the above discussion, it is clear that learning a second language requires raising consciousness about the new language and then using strategies that match an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and preferences in order to produce positive results. Again, it is clear that personality and individual characteristics play a major role in influencing the effectiveness of consciousness-raising process in second language acquisition. In addition, various style of language learning should be considered in raising consciousness on acquisition of the second language, given that learning different languages requires different styles. From the paper, it is also evident that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s moods and capabilities, including the intelligence level, determine the level of consciousness needed in acquisition of a second language. Cognitive ability must be well developed in order to accommodate the various complex rules and method ologies in second language learning. Moreover, since language promotes easier communication and relationships between individuals, it is important to establish the best strategies that will enhance raising consciousness about the new language and allow learners to use it effectively. Therefore, consciousness-raising strategies discussed above should be adopted in order to promote the acquisition of English as a second language. References DÃ ¶rnyei, Z. (2005). The Psychology of the Language Learner: Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. New Jersey, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Ellis, R. (2003).Second language acquisition. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Johnson, M. (2004). Philosophy of Second Language Acquisition. New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press. Lamb, T., Reinders, H. (2008). Learner and Teacher Autonomy: Concepts, Realities, and Responses. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John BenjaminÃ¢â¬â¢s publishing Company. Macaro, E. (2010). C ontinuum Companion to Second Language Acquisition. London, England: Continuum International Publishing. Robinson, P. (2002). Individual Differences and Instructed Language Learning. Philadelphia, USA: John BenjaminÃ¢â¬â¢s. Robinson, P., and Ellis, N. (2008). Handbook of cognitive linguistics and second language acquisition. New York, USA: Routledge. Saville-Troike, M. (2005). Introducing second language acquisition. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.